loading filmlets ...
02:59 min 7. February 2014

Where Did Earth's Water Come From?

a lecture in English

This video sponsored by Tab for a Cause: http://www.tabforacause.org?r=3

Please support MinuteEarth on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And subscribe! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd

Earth didn't have water when it formed, but it does now! How did it get wet?

Created by Henry Reich
Animation: Ever Salazar
Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert
Music: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

Want to add captions to MinuteEarth videos? - minuteearth.subtitl.us

MinuteEarth is available as a free iTunes podcast! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n

Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth
Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth

MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes!

References
Campbell, I. H., & O'Neill, H. S. C. (2012). Evidence against a chondritic Earth.Nature, 483(7391), 553-558.

Drake, M. J. (2005). Origin of water in the terrestrial planets. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 40(4), 519-527.

Greenwood, J. P., Itoh, S., Sakamoto, N., Warren, P., Taylor, L., & Yurimoto, H. (2011). Hydrogen isotope ratios in lunar rocks indicate delivery of cometary water to the Moon. Nature Geoscience, 4(2), 79-82.

Hauri, E. H. (2013). Planetary science: Traces of ancient lunar water. Nature Geoscience, 6(3), 159-160.

Marty, B. (2012). The origins and concentrations of water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gases on Earth. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 313, 56-66.

Pepin, R. O. (2006). Atmospheres on the terrestrial planets: Clues to origin and evolution. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 252(1), 1-14.

Robert, F. (2001). The origin of water on Earth. Science, 293(5532), 1056-1058.

Robert, F. (2011). Planetary science: A distinct source for lunar water?. Nature Geoscience, 4(2), 74-75.

Saal, A. E., Hauri, E. H., Van Orman, J. A., & Rutherford, M. J. (2013). Hydrogen Isotopes in Lunar Volcanic Glasses and Melt Inclusions Reveal a Carbonaceous Chondrite Heritage. Science, 340(6138), 1317-1320.

thumbnail
03:13 min 14. February 2014

Are any Animals Truly Monogamous?

a lecture in English

Love MinuteEarth? We'd love your support! Subscribe on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And please subscribe! http://goo.gl/EpIDGd

Thanks to our Subbable supporter ALFREDO STAGG for making MinuteEarth possible!

Created by Henry Reich
Animation: Ever Salazar
Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert
Music: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

Want to add captions to MinuteEarth videos? - minuteearth.subtitl.us

Free iTunes podcasts of MinuteEarth! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth
Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth

MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes!

References

Barash, D. P., & Lipton, J. E. (2002). The myth of monogamy: Fidelity and infidelity in animals and people. Macmillan.

Brooked, M. G., Rowley, I., Adams, M., & Baverstock, P. R. (1990). Promiscuity: an inbreeding avoidance mechanism in a socially monogamous species?. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 26(3), 191-199.

Chapais, B. (2013). Monogamy, strongly bonded groups, and the evolution of human social structure. Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews, 22(2), 52-65.

de Waal, F. B., & Gavrilets, S. (2013). Monogamy with a purpose. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(38), 15167-15168.

Double, M., & Cockburn, A. (2000). Pre--dawn infidelity: females control extra-pair mating in superb fairy--wrens. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 267(1442), 465-470.

Kraaijeveld, K., Carew, P. J., Billing, T., Adcock, G. J., & Mulder, R. A. (2004). Extra‐pair paternity does not result in differential sexual selection in the mutually ornamented black swan (Cygnus atratus). Molecular Ecology, 13(6), 1625-1633.

Ophir, A. G., Phelps, S. M., Sorin, A. B., & Wolff, J. O. (2008). Social but not genetic monogamy is associated with greater breeding success in prairie voles.Animal Behaviour, 75(3), 1143-1154.

Reichard, U. (2002). Monogamy - a Variable Relationship. MaxPlanckResearch Conference Report.

Thusius, K. J., Peterson, K. A., Dunn, P. O., & Whittingham, L. A. (2001). Male mask size is correlated with mating success in the common yellowthroat.Animal Behaviour, 62(3), 435-446.

Wan, D., Chang, P., & Yin, J. (2013). Causes of extra-pair paternity and its inter-specific variation in socially monogamous birds. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 33(3), 158-166.

Webster, M. S., Tarvin, K. A., Tuttle, E. M., & Pruett‐Jones, S. (2007). Promiscuity drives sexual selection in a socially monogamous bird. Evolution,61(9), 2205-2211.

Monogamous primates: http://www-personal.umich.edu/~phyl/anthro/mating.html

Image Credits

Fairy Wren
Photo by: Wikimedia user benjamint444
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Male_and_female_superb_fairy_wren.jpg

Ducks
Photo by: Jörg Hempel
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Anas_platyrhynchos_LC0193.jpg

Swans
Photo by: Richard Bartz
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cygnus_olor_flirt_edit.jpg

Parrots
Photo by: Riza Nugraha
http://www.flickr.com/photos/rnugraha/3033898918/

Male Fairy Wren
Photo by: Patrick_K59
http://www.flickr.com/photos/patrick_k59/9697721075/

Female Fairy Wren
Photo by: Patrick_K59
http://www.flickr.com/photos/patrick_k59/9570215778/

Peacock
Photo by: Simone Zuffanelli
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pavone_2.jpg?fastcci_from=178401

Siamangs
Photo by: Daniel Ramirez
http://www.flickr.com/photos/danramarch/5213304237/

Gorillas
Based on photo by: Wikimedia user No escape
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Gorillafamily.JPG

thumbnail
03:22 min 21. January 2016

How Many Mass Extinctions Have There Been?

a lecture in English

Thanks to Audible for supporting this video. Get your free 30-day trial at https://www.audible.com/minuteearth

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons:
Today I Found Out, Maarten Bremer, Mark Roth, Jeff Straathof, Tony Fadell, Ahmed, Muhammad Shifaz, Vidhya Krishnaraj, Luka Leskovsek, Duhilio Patino, Alberto Bortoni, Valentin, Nicholas Buckendorf, and Antoine Coeur
___________________________________________

Want to learn more about the topic in this week’s video? Here are some keywords/phrases to get your googling started:
– Mass Extinction Event: a significant, global decrease in the diversity of life
– "Big 5": The five biggest mass extinction events since the Cambrian explosion of Life 550 million years ago
– Biodiversity Crisis: Like a mass extinction, a biodiversity crisis is a marked depletion in diversity in the fossil record. Some scientists prefer to call the late-Devonian extinction a "biodiversity crisis" because a lack of speciation contributed to the loss in diversity just as much as extinction did.
– Diversity curve: A line chart that shows the diversity of life (usually by genera, but sometimes by species or family) over time
– Lagerstatte: a deposit of sedimentary rock that contains a profound number of fossils, often with excellent preservation
– Shareholder Quorum Subsampling: A statistical method that corrects for some of the biases in the fossil record, allowing scientists to generate more accurate diversity curves
___________________________________________

Credits:
Script Writer: Emily Elert (twitter:@eelert)
Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (twitter:@KateYoshida)
Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (twitter:@eversalazar)
Video Director: Emily Elert (twitter:@eelert)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich (twitter:@minutephysics), Alex Reich (twitter:@alexhreich), Peter Reich
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
_________________________________________

Like our videos?
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
And for exclusive early access to all our videos, sign up with Vessel: https://goo.gl/hgD1iJ

Already subscribed?
Help us keep making MinuteEarth by supporting us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ

Also, say hello on:
Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And find us on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
________________________

References:

Alroy, J. (2015). Personal Communication.

Alroy, J. (2008). Dynamics of origination and extinction in the marine fossil record. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 11536-11542. Retrieved April 8, 2015, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2556405/

Alroy, J. (n.d.). Accurate and precise estimates of origination and extinction rates. Paleobiology, 40(3), 374-397. Retrieved September 20, 2015, from https://www.nceas.ucsb.edu/~alroy/pdfs/2014-Paleobiology-40-374.pdf

Benton, M. (2003). When life nearly died: The greatest mass extinction of all time. New York: Thames & Hudson.

Barrett, Paul M. (2015). Personal Communication.

Fossilworks: Gateway to the Paleobiology Database.
http://fossilworks.org/?page=paleodb

Lloyd, GT, Smith, AB and Young, JR, (2011). Quantifying the deep-sea rock and fossil record bias using coccolithophores. Geological Society Special Publication, 358 (1), 167-177.

Mcghee, G., Clapham, M., Sheehan, P., Bottjer, D., & Droser, M. (2013). A new ecological-severity ranking of major Phanerozoic biodiversity crises. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 370, 260-270.

Raup, D. (1979). Biases in the fossil record of species and genera. Bulletin of the Carnegie Museum of Natural History 13: 85–91.

Raup, D., & Sepkoski, J. (1982). Mass Extinctions in the Marine Fossil Record. Science, 215(4539), 1501-1503.

Vermeij, GJ. (2015). Personal Communication.

thumbnail
03:33 min 22. January 2015

Why Poor Places Are More Diverse

a lecture in English

Thanks to The Kwongan Foundation at the University of Western Australia for supporting this video: http://www.plants.uwa.edu.au/alumni/kwongan

MinuteEarth is now on Patreon! Please support us at: http://www.patreon.com/minuteearth

And subscribe! - http://www.youtube.com/user/minuteearth?sub_confirmation=1
________________________
Created by Henry Reich
Production and Writing Team: Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Emily Elert, Ever Salazar, Kate Yoshida, and Henry Reich
Music by Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

________________________
Free iTunes podcasts of MinuteEarth! - https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
Facebook - http://facebook.com/minuteearth
Twitter - http://twitter.com/MinuteEarth

MinuteEarth provides an energetic and entertaining view of trends in earth's environment -- in just a few minutes!

________________________
References

Borer, ET et al. 2014. Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation. Nature 508, 517–520

Fearon, J. 2003. Ethnic and Cultural Diversity by Country. Journal of Economic Growth 8: 195–222. doi:10.1023/A:1024419522867.

Guyana Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Guyana Environmental Protection Agency 2010, 83 pages

Iyigun, M.F. and A.L. Owen. 1998. Risk, entrepreneurship, and human-capital accumulation, American Economic Review, No. 2, Papers and Proceedings 88 (2), 454-457.

Lambers, H (ed). 2014. Plant Life on the Sandplains in Southwest Australia, a Global Biodiversity Hotspot - Kwongan Matters. Publisher: University of Western Australia Publishing, Crawley. ISBN: 978-1-74258-564-2

Maffi L. 2005. Linguistic, cultural and biological diversity. Annual Review of Anthropology
Vol. 34: 599-617

Nettle, D. 1998. Explaining global patterns of language diversity. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 17(4):354--74.

New Atlas of the British and Irish Flora. 2002., CD Preston, DA Pearman, TD Dines (editors), Oxford University Press. 910 pages

Sutherland, W. J. 2003. Parallel extinction risk and global distribution of languages and species. Nature, 423:276--279.

S. Wennekers, A. van Stel, M. Carree, and R. Thurik, 2010. The Relationship between Entrepreneurship and Economic Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship 6: 167-237.

Yamada G. 1996. Urban Informal Employment and Self-Employment in Developing Countries: Theory and Evidence. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND CULTURAL CHANGE. 44: 289-314.

IMAGE CREDITS:

Kwongan - Kwongan Foundation
http://www.plants.uwa.edu.au/alumni/kwongan

Rainforest - Bishnu Sarangi (Public Domain)
http://pixabay.com/es/selva-parque-nacional-mollem-384944/

Meadows - Wikimedia user Nikater (Public Domain)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Blumenwiese_bei_Obermaiselstein05.jpg

Forest - Hansueli Krapf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Swiss_National_Park_131.JPG

Wetland - Wikimedia user Martinsnm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Laguna01.jpg

Indian Market - Courtesy Shutterstock

Chinatown Bangkok - Yoav David
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Chinatown_Bangkok.jpg

Language and Poverty map data:
http://data.un.org/Data.aspx?d=WDI&f=Indicator_Code%3ANY.GNP.PCAP.CD
http://asjp.clld.org/

thumbnail
04:23 min 28. March 2013

One Day

a narrative film in English

Un homme en mouvance permanente va faire une rencontre bouleversante.
One man always on the move will have an encounter that puts into question everything he knows.

De Joël CORCIA, Bung NGUYEN, Thomas RETEUNA, Laurent ROSSI, Bernard SOM, étudiants de la formation Concepteur et réalisateur de films d'animation (3e année) à GOBELINS, l'école de l'image.

Durée : 4 minutes 20 secondes.

Distribution :
La distribution des films produits par GOBELINS, l'école de l'image est assurée par L'Agence du court métrage. Contact : f.keller@agencecm.com.

thumbnail
04:23 min 29. January 2016

POP CULTURE: Mark Zuckerberg's T-shirts

a report in English

Mark Zuckerberg is one of the richest people on the planet - and yet dresses like a very ordinary guy. That's both cheering and subtly deeply wounding to our pride.
If you like our films take a look at our shop (we ship worldwide): http://theschooloflife.com/shop/all/

Brought to you by http://theschooloflife.com

Produced in collaboration with Mad Adam Films
http://madadamfilms.co.uk

thumbnail
29:51 min 3. June 2013

7 Tage ... beim Bund | 7 Tage | NDR

a report in German

Liegestütz vor dem Frühstück, durchs Gelände robben und marschieren: Das ist Rekruten-Alltag. "7 Tage ... beim Bund" ist ein Film über die Welt hinter der Kasernenmauer.

http://www.ndr.de

thumbnail
11:19 min 25. January 2015

Il Tour di Davide

a narrative film in Italian

IL TOUR DI DAVIDE is a short rom-com filmed on a tour bus around Rome.

Davide, a city tour guide, leads his faithful tourists into a bizarre and surreal excursion through Rome and its famous landmarks that have witnessed the reasons for his broken heart.

Il Tour di Davide won Best Actor at the Cortinametraggio Film Festival 2014 and was screened at numerous festivals including 37th Cleveland International Film Festival, 13th Milano International Film Festival 2013, 34th Durban International Film Festival and 43rd Giffoni Film Festival 2013.
www.iltourdidavide.com

CAST
Davide - EDOARDO NATOLI
Aldo - PASCAL ZULLINO
Dorothy - LYNN SWANSON
Theodora - THEODORA VOUTSA
Donato - BRUNO PAVONCELLI
Cecilia - GIOIA VICARI
Ed - MATTHEW REYNOLDS
Roger - ALLAN CAISTER PEARCE
Kevin - JAY KISAN GUNJAL
Agatha - DENISE GONZALES ARIAS
Akiko - ASAMI TAJIMA

CREW
Wirter and Director - NICOLA SERSALE
Cinematographer - OWEN JAMES LAIRD
Executive Producers - FABRIZIO VICARI , LUCA PADRINI, PAOLA CAMPANILE
Production Manager - SANDRA BONACCHI
Camera Operator - STEFANO COLETTA
Assistant Camera - CLAUDIO PALMIERI
Production Designer - MAURIZIO LEONARDI
Costume Designer - PATRIZIA MAZZON
Assistant Director - ANGELO VICARI
09 Produzioni - ROBERTO DE NIGRIS
Sound Recordist - ROBERTO SESTITO
Editor - NICK CALORI
Original Music - TITAS PETRIKIS
Sound Editor - HENNING KNOEPFEL
Colour Grader - BELGIN KAPLAN

thumbnail
06:15 min 9. November 2009

Pigeon: Impossible

a narrative film in no language

Watch our newest animated short film "The OceanMaker" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J2J4eareIIg

A rookie secret agent is faced with a problem seldom covered in basic training: what to do when a curious pigeon gets trapped inside your multi-million dollar, government-issued nuclear briefcase.

Directed by Lucas Martell
http://www.mightycoconut.com

thumbnail
24:02 min 1. March 2014

High in Colorado: Der Cannabis-Goldrausch

a report in German

Die Stadt Denver liegt genau eine Meile über dem Meeresspiegel und nennt sich deshalb "Mile High City". Seit Anfang des Jahres ist Denver allerdings auch in anderer Hinsicht "high" - denn der Bundesstaat Colorado hat den Verkauf von Marihuana legalisiert. Kifferbuden, Hanfplantagen und Headshops schießen seitdem aus dem Boden. Ein Drogen-Goldrausch im sonst so prüden Amerika.

thumbnail
15:18 min 8. May 2015

VICE Shorts: everything & everything & everything

a narrative film in English

The oppressively vapid life of Morgan is forever transformed when a mystical blue pyramid - that inexplicably produces doorknobs - appears in his apartment. What follows is a tale of greed and loss as Morgan builds an impossible, absurd corporate empire of doorknobs.

Up Next: London's Black Revolutionaries - http://bit.ly/1KqIhai

Click here to subscribe to VICE: http://bit.ly/Subscribe-to-VICE

Check out our full video catalog: http://bit.ly/VICE-Videos
Videos, daily editorial and more: http://vice.com
More videos from the VICE network: https://www.fb.com/vicevideos
Like VICE on Facebook: http://fb.com/vice
Follow VICE on Twitter: http://twitter.com/vice
Read our Tumblr: http://vicemag.tumblr.com
Follow us on Instagram: http://instagram.com/vice
Check out our Pinterest: https://pinterest.com/vicemag

thumbnail
04:14 min 29. April 2016

Experiment! How Does An Owl Fly So Silently? - Super Powered Owls - BBC

a documentary in English

Using sensitive sound equipment the team try to find out how an owl can fly so silently compared to other birds.

Taken from Super Powered Owls.

Subscribe to BBC Earth: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=BBCEarth
BBC Earth YouTube Channel: http://www.youtube.com/BBCEarth

BBC Earth Facebook http://www.facebook.com/bbcearth (ex-UK only)
BBC Earth Twitter http://www.twitter.com/bbcearth

Visit http://www.bbc.com/earth/world for all the latest animal news and wildlife videos

This is a channel from BBC Worldwide who help fund new BBC programmes.

thumbnail
03:39 min 16. March 2011

Useful

a music video in English

A short film featuring the struggles of a doomed couple.

Official music video for ‘Use Somebody’ by Kings Of Leon, performed by Scala & Kolacny brothers. www.scalachoir.com

Shot on Three days in Brussels and Antwerp, Belgium.
27th of February, 28th of February and 29th of February.

Official selection shortfilmcorner Cannes filmfestival 2011.
Best international experimental shortfilm at the New York Independent Film Festival 2011.
Young directors award at the Cristal Festival 2011.

Director: Inti Calfat
Scenario: Inti Calfat & Hugo Van Laere
DOP: Bjorn Charpentier
Producer: Frederik Zaman & Mitchel Elsen, TRS
Production manager: Thierry Vandenbussche (outlandish)
Production Assistant: Mike Madelein
Production Assistant: Tatiana De Pret
1st camera Assisitant: Joris Rymen
2nd camera Assistant: Jolien De Graeve
Chef Electro: Peter Van Den Bosch
Styling: Jan Dendievel & Xavier
Make-up: Marie Brabant
Production Design: Olya Tsoraeva
Decor: Simon Van Laar
Special Effects: Martin De La Vallée
Editor & composits: Hans Desmet
Grading: Veerle Zeelmaeckers
Sounddesign: Gregory Caron

Cast:
Wife: Marijke Pinoy
Husband: Hans Van Cauwenberghe
Prostitutes: Dolores Bouckaert, Leen Van Dommel, Elke Shari.

thumbnail
01:09 min 7. July 2011

Minute Physics: What is Dark Matter?

a lecture in English

Minute Physics provides an energetic and entertaining view of old and new problems in physics -- all in one minute!

In this episode, we discuss Dark Matter, an exotic type of matter we know very little about, despite the fact that it makes up around 80% of all matter in the universe! Created by Henry Reich

thumbnail
09:59 min 20. July 2015

Rabbit

a narrative film in English

A woman in an abusive relationship hires someone to "take care of things"